• Stipulation Discriminating Employee on Account of Gender
  • Stipulation Prohibiting Employee to Join Union
  • Stipulation Discriminating Employee on Account of Age
  • Stipulation Against Marriage

Interpretation of Labor Laws Labor laws are generally construed liberally in favor of labor. The Labor Code of the Philippines states: “All doubts in the implementation and interpretation of the provisions of the Labor Code, including its implementing rules and regulations, shall be resolved in favor of labor.”[1] Similar provision can be found in the […]

Normal Hours of Work The normal hours of work under the Labor Code is 8 hours in one work day. Work day is understood to mean one 24-hour cycle which starts from the time the employee is engaged to work and ends on the same time the following day. For example, if the employee is […]

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  • Three test to determine employer-employee relationship
  • Four-fold test elements
  • Economic reality test
  • Two-tiered test (or Multi-factor test)
  • Sources of Labor Code
  • Labor Code of the Philippines
  • Judicial decisions
  • Rules and regulations
  • International laws and conventions

Tripartism as a state policy; Tripartism meaning; History of Tripartism.